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Seeing the Invisible: How a 350-year-old photography technique is helping to fight COVID


1) Rienitz J. Schlieren experiment 300 years ago. Nature (1975), 254: 293-294.

2) Engemann S, Krehl P. August Toepler-the first who visited the shock waves. Shock Waves (1995), 5: 1-18.

3) Tang et al. A schlieren optical study of the human cough with and without wearing masks

for aerosol infection control.  J R Soc Interface (2009),6 S727-S736.

4) Staymates M. Flow visualization of an N95 respirator with and without an exhalation valve using

schlieren imaging and light scattering. Phys. Fluids (2020) 32: 111703.

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